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Minor procedures are performed under local anaesthesia. They last for several minutes. After removal of lesions, the surgeon stitches the wound, and the stitches are removed after 6 to 8 days. Depending on the nature of changes, some of the samples are sent for histopathology tests.


Patient preparation

The following tests are necessary before surgery: blood cell count, APTT, HBS, HCV. Preoperative fasting is not required; diabetic patients should keep their normal eating routine and continue insulin therapy. Before surgery, the patient must not change dosages of any medications he/she may be taking, only blood-thinning medications must be avoided for 7 days prior to the scheduled surgery date, after consultation with the internal medicine doctor in charge of this patient’s treatment (aspirin or products containing aspirin). Take off make up.


Additional examinations

Fluorescein angiography – it involves intravenous administration of fluorescein. It is a fluorescence emitting dye, which may be recorded by a digital camera. It provides a means for visualisation of damage and changes in retinal vessels. In order to conduct a test, it is necessary to dilate the pupil and insert a needle into a vein in the patient’s arm.


Combined autorefractor and keratometer (computerised eye tests) – An automatic test of vision defects and corneal optical power, conducted routinely as part of eye examination. It is a non-contact method.


Biometrics – measurement of eye structures and eyeball length, preceded by anaesthetisation of the cornea with HRT II drops (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph). It is a method of obtaining a 3D image of the posterior eye section – particularly, the optic nerve disc. It can be used for precise quantitative analysis of the disc, which is especially important for glaucoma diagnostics and monitoring. The test does not require any preparation and lasts for several minutes. It is a non-contact method.

Pachymetry – An ultrasound measurement of corneal thickness, especially important in glaucoma or corneal degeneration, and prior to laser vision correction and relaxing incisions; it is preceded by anaesthetisation of the cornea with drops.

Visual field test – The purpose is to determine the area seen with a motionless eye. A computerised visual field test is applied in diagnostics of glaucoma, pathological changes within the eye fundus as well as optic tract damage. This test requires concentration and close cooperation from the patient. The person examined sits in front of a lit dome of the instrument. He or she has one eye covered, and must focus the second eye throughout the entire test at the light target in the centre of the dome, pressing a button when they see the second light.


Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography (SOCT) – records light reflections from respective retinal layers, creating cross-sectional images. It is the most advanced examination of the macula, making it possible to detect even very small changes, not yet seen in fluorescein angiography. The only prerequisite for this examination is pupil dilution.

Applanation tonometry – intraocular pressure measurement

Corneal topography (map) – a method of assessing the surface curvature of the cornea in order to detect any irregularities. Especially important in diagnostics and treatment of keratoconus and irregular astigmatism as well as planning rhombus shaped relaxing incisions. It is a non-contact method.

Ultrasound (US) – Used to visualise eyeball structures in cases of ocular media opacity (corneal keratoma, mature cataract, vitreous haemorrhage) and in diagnostics of intraocular tumours and retinal detachment; performed through the eyelids and preceded by application of a small amount of gel.

Corneal endothelium examination with the use of an endothielial microscope. This examination should be performed in those qualified for cataract operation with suspected corneal disease; also recommended prior to refractive procedures. No need for prior patient preparation. It is a non-contact method.